I have a button on say, sheet1 with text that I want to change after a certain action takes place; however, I was trying to change this text without switching sheets. To edit or modify the text (color, size, font, etc. Last week we looked at linking Excel directly to Word documents. VBA Macro to change language of all texts to English - version1. PowerPoint VBA: Change UPPERCASE To Normal Case Created: Wednesday, December 6, 2017, posted by Geetesh Bajaj at 9:30 am When you add slides to a presentation based on some of PowerPoint's built-in Themes, you may find that all titles (headings and/or subheads) scream out in UPPERCASE letters, no matter what you do!. It is a little more flexible if you wish to add to the range. Finding Out Whether a Shape Has a Text Frame: 7. ColorIndex OR Font. I have tried to format all of the cells as "Text" to show as entered, but it doesnt work. Adding Text to Shapes in Powerpoint 2010 - One of the great aspects of PowerPoint is that you can treat the shapes as text boxes too. Then we strip out all the extra code so we can add text to the shape. Because the text box is too small for its contents, you can adjust its size by pulling a drag corner. How to set a graph or shape in Word so it stays behind the text using VBA? In Word the option is to right click an object select wrap text and click the desired options such as behind text, in front of text and other options. The functionality of the background shapes is based on several shapesheet values and an add-on. This video explains the basics of working with text in shapes, including how to add to text to a basic shape, how to format text inside shapes and how to change the text alignment and orientation. You can’t change multiple comments at the same time. Excel Made Easy. The next stop in our looping series is the Shapes loop. 4 part section >> A TreeView Project. Then change the value in the active cell to whatever you want, just put it between double apostrophes. Then we strip out all the extra code so we can add text to the shape. Sub AssignMacro() Worksheets("Sheet1"). Let's start by assigning a color to the text in A1. It is a little more flexible if you wish to add to the range. How to precisely move objects / shapes in Powerpoint in VBA? In Powerpoint, you may want to align charts and objects on several different slides into the exact same position for consistency. For demonstration purpose, we had 3 rectangles and 1 command button placed on slide 1. Word offers many options for changing the way text boxes appear in your document. Text = "" End Sub. Changing the text in a shape textbox. Kind regards, Simon van Beek Me. This becomes useful when you want to type some text within a shape an. The problem is that I don't know the syntax for setting either font type or font size for a text box on a report. This example sets the formatting for the text in shape one on slide one in the active presentation. The six shapes are as follows: Used for selecting cells The I-beam which indicates the cursor position when editing a cell entry. Setting up a variable to hold text is quite straightforward. Change the value/content of several UserForm-controls using VBA in Microsoft Excel In an Excel 5/95 dialogsheet it is possible to change the value/content of a collection of controls by looping through the controls in the collection, e. In the current example (pictured below), we entered the text: "Cabernet Sauvignon". The next stop in our looping series is the Shapes loop. If you created the button via the Forms toolbar, then you need to use Veena's solution. Adding a random colour to a toggle button is a bit of a novelty in an Excel workbook. After that, the macro tackles the main formatting commands that I personally use the most in PowerPoint. As a result, the box's text will now reflect its shape data value whenever if changes. Setting Picture Layout. Conditional Formatting shapes: Improve your Excel skills As conclusion we can say that conditional formatting shapes is capable of doing way more things than most of us think. Code =====. Change the Font Size, Color, and Style of an Excel Form Control Label Anyone who has used a Form Control Label likely knows its limitations: you can't increase the font-size, -color, or style. to the email address, like change the font color or change on letter, Excel tries to email the address. Below, you can see that these formatting items have been "grayed out" in the Font group on the Excel Ribbon. To solve this issue, in PowerPoint 2007 or PowerPoint 2010 go to Format Shape properties and under Text Box tab change the value for Autofit. Shapes("Rectangle 1"). For demonstration purpose, we had 3 rectangles and 1 command button placed on slide 1. Change the value/content of several UserForm-controls using VBA in Microsoft Excel In an Excel 5/95 dialogsheet it is possible to change the value/content of a collection of controls by looping through the controls in the collection, e. Change the colour of your VB6 or VBA IDE. DataObject Get the text from the clipboard using Data Object objData. Change text box color. This tutorial will show you how. You may want to run a macro when a cell changes. Have questions or feedback about Office VBA or this documentation? Please see Office VBA support and feedback for guidance about the ways you can receive support and provide feedback. chm extension tells you that it's a compiled HTML help file, which is the standard documentation format in Windows XP and later. To change multiple shapes, press and hold SHIFT while you click the shapes that you want to change. You can interactively change the point size of selected text (object) if you press Ctrl and 2, 4, 6 or 8 on the numeric keypad. The Visio example file and VBA classes source code are available here for reference. Open the shapesheet of the shape in the stencil and change it's Height, Width; PinX, PinY and EventDrop function. It's a little macro I wrote one day. Another possible alternative would be to use custom callouts, also available in visio standard, and allowing to display shape data values. Maxey) DISCLAIMER /TERMS OF USE The information, illustrations and code contained in my "Microsoft Word Tips" are provided free and without risk or obligation. Excel VBA Code. Text = "My New Caption" If however, you created it via the Visual Basic toolbar then you need to use a solution similar to Skip's: activeSheet. You can change the shape, style, and color of text boxes or add various effects. I did assign macro by clicking it ( Action ). change its caption. Copying Formatting from One Shape to Another: 6. Column 9 (I) sets the number of shapes to be created. Change the value/content of several UserForm-controls using VBA in Microsoft Excel In an Excel 5/95 dialogsheet it is possible to change the value/content of a collection of controls by looping through the controls in the collection, e. You can insert different kinds of shapes in your Excel worksheet, like a circle or a rectangle etc. I am looking one step higher how to change the shape color and text in visual basic. There are drop down lists in row 1 where the user selects whether to apply the wrap text formatting or not. In the below example 'TextBox1' is the text box name. Shapes("TextBox 1"). In the ActiveX Controls group, click Text Box. Right click. For all general questions relating to Excel but not including VBA or formulas. If ActiveWindow. Kind regards, Simon van Beek Me. It can be used as a VBA function (VBA) in Excel. VBA Macro to change language of all texts to English - version1. I have a table where I want to be able to automatically add a row to the end of the table (got that part to work), then based on the user's selection, add a particular Wingding to a particular cell in the table. These shapes can be used for various purposes and you can easily change its properties like the color or the size etc. A popular use of this ability is to have custom code validate a cell after a change is made. For more information about drop down lists in Excel please see Excel VBA Drop Down Lists: After selecting "No" from the drop down list the wrap text property of cell F2 is set off:. Let us see how you can use the VBA "TextFrame" property in your macro to add text to shapes dynamically. VBA Programmer. You might not want Excel firing an event for every cell you’re changing via code, and turning off events will speed up your VBA code performance if there is a COM Add-In. In a Word 2013 document with a shape, select a shape, in this example a triangle, and then choose Drawing Tools Format→Rotate Objects→Rotate Right 90°. Hi,InVBAExcel, it is possible customize the size of the shape to fit to containg text. So I'm attempting to fill all of my slides with data from an excel file while maintaining the integrity of the rest of the slide. An insertion point appears within the body of the shape. Option Explicit Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range) If UCase(Sheet1. This seems easy, but because excel codes the location of an object from the top left of cell A1, it makes it very difficult to work out exactly where the object…. But to create the chart with the same VBA worksheet (datasheet) as shape we need to use a different technique. For demonstration purpose, we had 3 rectangles placed on slide 1. Adding Text to a Shape with VBA I have a Shape (rounded rectangle) that I want to add text, then edit the text via VBA. Text = "My New Caption" If however, you created it via the Visual Basic toolbar then you need to use a solution similar to Skip's: activeSheet. If you are using a specific worksheet, then you could in addition to Paul Kelly's code add a worksheet event in that specific worksheet like this: [code vbnet] Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range) If Target. I created an org chart using the Org Chart Wizard from an Excel file. This VBA macro has a ton of great stuff! First it creates a shape and adjusts its size and location on the active slide. The next stop in our looping series is the Shapes loop. PowerPoint VBA: Change UPPERCASE To Normal Case. Change partial text color in spreadsheet. You may want to run a macro when a cell changes. The mouse pointer changes shape in Microsoft Excel depending upon the context. These shapes can be used for various purposes and you can easily change its properties like the color or the size etc. Right click on the shape and then click on Assign Macro. Changing the text in a shape textbox. I have used this button to create a greeting card for Christmas. This seems easy, but because excel codes the location of an object from the top left of cell A1, it makes it very difficult to work out exactly where the object…. AddTextbox(msoTextOrientationHorizontal, 100, 100, 200, 50) ' add shape. Here we are changing the names of the rectangular shapes based on text inside the shape. This tutorial will show you how. Contribute to Ba11istix/VB-VBA-Colour-Change development by creating an account on GitHub. While format document texts, we cannot forget those in text boxes. vba code in PowerPoint to find text and format 'This is a silly procedure that cycles through all the shapes on a slide 'and checks for the HTML <B> or <I> tags. You can modify shapes in several ways using vba. Loops Back to Get the. I am looking one step higher how to change the shape color and text in visual basic. The REPLACE function is a built-in function in Excel that is categorized as a String/Text Function. The next stop in our looping series is the Shapes loop. In practice you could, taking the above code is a starting point and using powerpoint vba help: - test for layout, if necessary, change to containing title, - select shape you want to convert to title, and:. VBA Programmer. GetFromClipboard Get the text out of Data Object using GetText() metho d. Bottom line: Learn how to evenly space, align, and distribute shapes, charts, slicers, etc. Before you start to loop through shapes give it a minute to identify exactly what you would like to examine. Move down to the color portion and click on the down arrow on the dropdown box labeled ‘Color’. Copying Formatting from One Shape to Another: 6. But the starting position will change. Under Text Box Tools , on the Format tab, in the Text Box Styles group, click Change Shape , and then click the shape that you want. A 4 part section >> > BUY THE BOOK OF THIS COURSE ; The Excel VBA Resize Property. You'll also have to manually change the text on your masters and layouts. Sub Clr_TxtBx() TextBox1. AddTextbox(msoTextOrientationHorizontal, 100, 100, 200, 50) ' add shape. Jump To: Basics,. Change Color of Shapes According to The Cell Value. commandbutton1. If you created the button via the Forms toolbar, then you need to use Veena's solution. I did assign macro by clicking it ( Action ). Value < Int(Now()) - 14 Then Me. etc… Change Font Color in Excel VBA – Solution(s): We can change the font color by using Font. Hi! I'm trying to write VBA code in PowerPoint to change the outline color of a particular font called "Wingding". Clear ActiveX TextBox Control Using VBA. The REPLACE function is a built-in function in Excel that is categorized as a String/Text Function. For example, I have a macro "GenerateReport" in my WorkBook. You'll also have to manually change the text on your masters and layouts. Loops Back to Get the. Sometimes I find the amount and layout of the text the shape allows me to insert is too restricted by the margins. Q Where is the help file for MicroStation VBA?. Connectors and text) Is there a way to do this? Maybe select a shape and "apply" it to an existing shape?. VBA Macro to change language of all texts to English - version1. - Forum - Excel VBA macro to color a range of cells based on value of other cell - Forum - Excel. To change the names of shapes on the PowerPoint slide using VBA excel. After that, any new shapes or text boxes will use that formatting. As a VBA function, you can use this function in macro code that is entered through the Microsoft Visual Basic Editor. Shapes("Button 1"). Shapes("TextBox 1"). In our project, we want to change the values in A1 to Item, B1 to Price, C1 to Quantity and D1 to Total. I created an org chart using the Org Chart Wizard from an Excel file. Hi, Here is some code that will change the color of the text in a Textbox on a User Form, based on the difference in dates between Today and a date in a worksheet cell: If Worksheets(Sheet1). Then, in the resultant dialog, remove the checkmark next to All Caps each time. This was for a bet I had with my brother. To work with text in a shape, refer to its. Finding Out Whether a Shape Has a Text Frame: 7. The new graphics engine in Office 2007 brings to fore a whole slew of new effects which makes the presentation richer. Then, type fmMousePointer in the find box and click on the binoculars as in the figure below. Hence manipulating the contents of the shape requires knowledge of the MS Word object model. T he addShape() method has the following prototype: AddShape(Shape_type, Left,Top,Width,Height). To run a macro, you have a few choices. At Design For Use, we have been steadily dialing-up the sophistication of our wireframes using some of the powerful yet difficult to discover features of this tool. OnAction = "GenerateReport". Adding Text to a Shape with VBA I have a Shape (rounded rectangle) that I want to add text, then edit the text via VBA. You will also learn how to remove a macro from these items. Change the colour of your VB6 or VBA IDE. You can even create a vertical text box in which the text reads from top to bottom instead of left to right, or turn a text box into a circle, arrow, or other shape. fillcolor = blue? (not sure about. If the name is not in the three specific TextBox names, just ignore it. It can be used as a VBA function (VBA) in Excel. Bottom line: Learn how to evenly space, align, and distribute shapes, charts, slicers, etc. To assign a macro to a specific text box using VBA see following code. Edit links in Word using VBA. When you use Offset, as we did in the previous lesson, you're selecting a new range of cells based on a starting position. I'm just going to use a rectangle, change the colour to green and add some text. Build a UserForm for Excel Introduction A UserForm is a custom-built dialog box that you build using the Visual Basic Editor. With simple editing you could write a routine that passes in the name and the color from the first sheet. You can insert different kinds of shapes in your Excel worksheet, like a circle or a rectangle etc. Address = "A2" Then. You could, of course, change the index # to refer to the 2nd, 3rd, etc. Turning Off Default First Page Numbering Ever want to change the default settings for how Word handles page numbering? Word doesn't make this as easy as you would think. So, the code. below is my code that i used the second code is working but the function on Text's Shape Dont working well it just show =LIST!A2 what it need to show is the number from cell A2 in the sheet name list. You can also dynamically change the color of a shape based on values in specific cells using VBA. The new shapes can retain the position, connections, formatting, shape text, and/or shape data of the originals. Under Text Box Tools , on the Format tab, in the Text Box Styles group, click Change Shape , and then click the shape that you want. This becomes useful when you want to type some text within a shape an. I’ve got some Excel VBA macros that you may find useful in your work on PowerPivot. For multiple shapes, you'd need to implement a loop. Change Font Color in Excel VBA – Examples. i try to modified but seem to now working well. An insertion point appears within the body of the shape. Despite its limitations its a neat trick. In the ActiveX Controls group, click Text Box. In recent posts, I’ve discussed recording macros, fixing recorded macros, and even using someone else’s macros. Title shape should be deleted if empty or left if already contains a title. Running this from a document close event could be used to track changes made to the document. The mouse pointer changes shape in Microsoft Excel depending upon the context. Disseminating data and reports to your contacts can significantly improve your service and communications, and save paper and postage. commandbutton1. For all general questions relating to Excel but not including VBA or formulas. Example 2, Get Wrap Text Property. Connectors and text) Is there a way to do this? Maybe select a shape and "apply" it to an existing shape?. Code =====. To display text on the shape, you can use the TextFrame2 object property of the shape object. To change multiple shapes, press and hold SHIFT while you click the shapes that you want to change. #2 – Create a Chart with the Same Excel Sheet as Shape. Yet, there are instances when the "natural context" for that information is not a chart or a grid but some other visual display. Back to top. Let us see how you can use the VBA "TextFrame" property in your macro to add text to shapes dynamically. Despite its limitations its a neat trick. Open the shapesheet of the shape in the stencil and change it's Height, Width; PinX, PinY and EventDrop function. Change partial text color in spreadsheet. Change the size of a shape in Powerpoint 2007 using VBA Automation in Powerpoint 2007 is not so easy as it seems, because the macro recording is not available any more. Copying Formatting from One Shape to Another: 6. Text boxes are often seen in out documents. But to create the chart with the same VBA worksheet (datasheet) as shape we need to use a different technique. Have questions or feedback about Office VBA or this documentation? Please see Office VBA support and feedback for guidance about the ways you can receive support and provide feedback. You need to take all this into account before applying above code. Specifically Adding an Autoshape. For example, to change the text style of a specific text object, you use its 'Textstyle' property, which simply contains a string with the name of the text style. For example, because I use the selection_Change event for the periodic table, clicking on an already selected filter won't immediately turn it off because, well, the selection hasn't changed - no macro is fired. Last week we looked at linking Excel directly to Word documents. Option Explicit Private Sub Worksheet_Change(ByVal Target As Range) If UCase(Sheet1. NET? How to change the shape of button in mfc without creating a variable of button. PLEASE HELP. Write The Code. Ctrl+6/8 increases/decreases the text size in steps specified in text size drop-down list. Example 2, Get Wrap Text Property. Sub AssignMacro() Worksheets("Sheet1"). In the Font section of the Home tab of the Ribbon, click the arrow of the Font Color button to display the list of colors and select one:. If you do, the WordArt will overlay (hide) your data. In this example, you will be able to add text to the shape. Well, my previous posts about Graph Databases got me thinking if it would be possible to embed JSON text in Visio shapes in some sort of meaningful way. You can’t change multiple comments at the same time. The new graphics engine in Office 2007 brings to fore a whole slew of new effects which makes the presentation richer. So the first thing we need is a text box. Create a text file listing where the 2-d shapes in a document are located. This example sets the color and font name for bullets in shape two on slide one. Welcome to VBA Tips & Tricks. With simple editing you could write a routine that passes in the name and the color from the first sheet. Running this from a document close event could be used to track changes made to the document. Now you can enlarge the box. If the text on your shape is really part of the graphic, like in a STOP sign, then text as paths is a good idea, because in Visio, getting text to change font size as the shape shrinks and grows can be a bit of a chore (see: Text Resizing with ShapeSheet Formulas) […]. Excel VBA Code. Deleting a Shape: 3. The mouse pointer changes shape in Microsoft Excel depending upon the context. With the function, you tell Excel to start recording, then perform various steps as if you were working without a macro recorder, and finally, tell Excel to stop recording. There are drop down lists in row 1 where the user selects whether to apply the wrap text formatting or not. Tools menu > Macro > Macros, select the Macro, and click Run Shortcut Key combo Alt+F8, select the Macro, and click Run Run Macro button on the Visual Basic toolbar, […]. The ShapeRange collection object represents a collection of Shape objects that may contain all, some, or just one of the Shape objects in the drawing layer of a worksheet. all shape styles; change comment box style using vba; enter data on all sheets together: quick tip; add values from different sheets of a workbook wit write your text in shapes using vba; moving title for userform; change to sentence case; create in-cell bar chart in excel 2007 using formu split cell characters using vba; sum all digits. The x and y locatons, width, and height, as well as the object's text are recorded in the. Change AutoShape Text Color in VBA? I have a button on a worksheet which runs some VBA code. Select the text box you want to change. In the ActiveX Controls group, click Text Box. This makes sense, since you usually don't want the text to obscure the image. Often you will see code like this: ActivePresentation. You might not want Excel firing an event for every cell you’re changing via code, and turning off events will speed up your VBA code performance if there is a COM Add-In. Shapes("Rectangle 1"). You might not want Excel firing an event for every cell you’re changing via code, and turning off events will speed up your VBA code performance if there is a COM Add-In. Maxey) DISCLAIMER /TERMS OF USE The information, illustrations and code contained in my "Microsoft Word Tips" are provided free and without risk or obligation. In this example, cell A1 is being selected. To edit or modify the text (color, size, font, etc. There are two different ways that we can set the color: ColorIndex, which has 56 colors, or Color which makes it possible to use any color at all. VerticalAlignment = xlVAlignCenter End With Next shp End Sub. Selecting All Shapes: 4. HorizontalAlignment = xlHAlignCenter. The REPLACE function is a built-in function in Excel that is categorized as a String/Text Function. Using the MessageBox API, I wrote my own class to customize the button text, re-purposing some of the existing messagebox types to return which button was clicked (first, second, third). Setting Picture Layout Wrapping Style with Macro VBA simply discards all of the Shape properties that don't apply to an InlineShape. The below VBA code can help you to change the shape color based on a cell value, please do as follows: 1. But to create the chart with the same VBA worksheet (datasheet) as shape we need to use a different technique. VBA: Create PowerPoint Slide for Each Row in Excel Workbook This may seem like a really weird thing to want to do. I cannot figure out how to programmatically change the text effects of the inserted number to black. There are drop down lists in row 1 where the user selects whether to apply the wrap text formatting or not. Works with the first shape on the third slide of the presentation, moving it 100 points to the left and 200 points down, and rotating it 90 degrees counterclockwise: 5. To add a shape to Excel worksheet, the AddShape() method is used. Change the value/content of several UserForm-controls using VBA in Microsoft Excel In an Excel 5/95 dialogsheet it is possible to change the value/content of a collection of controls by looping through the controls in the collection, e. Because the text box is too small for its contents, you can adjust its size by pulling a drag corner. Working with Strings of Text in Excel VBA. Use : To add a new text-box using vba Sub add_textbox_VBA() Dim shp As Shape Set shp = ActiveSheet. This blog will also post articles related to them too Happy reading. I did assign macro by clicking it ( Action ). Right click the sheet tab which you want to change the shape color, and then select View Code from the context menu, in the popped out Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window, please copy and paste the following code into the blank Module window. Below, you can see that these formatting items have been "grayed out" in the Font group on the Excel Ribbon. To analyze the text in the shape, This code will change all the text in all the shapes to 12pt. ActiveWindow. Basically, there it is a one-page profile that m. Often you will see code like this: ActivePresentation. The one thing about this that may surprise people (it was a surprise to me) is that Shapes does not require a direct reference to the worksheet object that contains it (like it does if you try to use Shapes in a General code Module). Deleting a Shape: 3. Especially if you will deal with VBA code in the future and want to use more descriptive names for shapes and objects. VerticalAlignment = xlVAlignCenter End With Next shp End Sub. With VBA you can modify cells automatically without the need to manually change the values. Here we are changing the names of the rectangular shapes based on text inside the shape. The new shapes can retain the position, connections, formatting, shape text, and/or shape data of the originals. Create a text file listing where the 2-d shapes in a document are located. This vba will save your life when someone produces a presentation with different font styles and colours on every page and because they don't follow the Master you have to change each one individually. Back to top. Select the text box you want to change. Change the User Name. This example can set an example for other works. Shapes("Button 1"). You may want to run a macro when a cell changes. Otherwise it returns the character position where the text is found. The more text or longer the words and sentences, the smaller your text will need to be in order to fit it into the SmartArt shape, and this may distract from the slide and make it harder to convey. When I record a macro doing this, the closest I can come is code that copies new text from a cell and then selects a cell (probably where the upper left corner of the shape is located), followed by ActiveSheet. Use the AddTextbox Method to add a text box to the eighth slide and assign text to it. You'll also have to manually change the text on your masters and layouts. To solve this issue, in PowerPoint 2007 or PowerPoint 2010 go to Format Shape properties and under Text Box tab change the value for Autofit. Excel Made Easy. Drag a command button and a text box on your worksheet. VBA Exercises: Exercises designed to help you learn VBA in an easy and practical way; VBA Text Formatting: Simple VBA exercise that teaches you how to use the macro recorder and create useful codes; VBA Color Selected: Simple vba exercise that teaches you to change the background color of selected cells. Sub Clr_TxtBx() TextBox1. Drag a command button and a text box on your worksheet. See Formatting Codes For Headers And Footers in the VBA help files for a complete list of control sequences. I have tried to format all of the cells as "Text" to show as entered, but it doesnt work. In the above example, we have created the VBA chart in the separate excel sheet only. You can also dynamically change the color of a shape based on values in specific cells using VBA. Instead of showing the user name at the start of Excel comments, you can change to something generic, such as "Note:" However, this change affects the User Name in all Microsoft Office programs, so you may want to reset the name before you exit Excel. Below, you can see that these formatting items have been "grayed out" in the Font group on the Excel Ribbon. To assign a macro to a specific text box using VBA see following code. How to change a shape color in Excel using a VBA macro Labels: border , borders , color , colorindex , domyexcel , domyexcel. In Excel spreadsheet, you can change part of the text in a Cell by highlighting the text and then change the font color. Net, c# and other technologies. The new shapes can retain the position, connections, formatting, shape text, and/or shape data of the originals. VBA Drawing with Microsoft Excel 2007 Geoff Whale, School of Computer Science & Engineering, The University of New South Wales Abstract: The Excel 2007 Macro Recorder does not capture drawing actions, making it difficult for a casual developer to see how to create shapes programmatically. Caption = "New Title". Point your mouse to the bottom-right corner; the mouse pointer will change shape. The following will add a different colour each time you click on the shape within the sheet. Dim R As Integer Dim G As Integer Dim B As Integer R = Val(InputBox("Please input red value")) G = Val(InputBox("Please input green value")) B = Val(InputBox("Please input blue value")) Dim. To edit or modify the text (color, size, font, etc.